Car tuning is understood as making changes to the exterior, interior, engine and chassis of the car in order to improve its appearance, technical and aerodynamic characteristics. For example, increasing the engine power, improving the braking system, installing the additional speakers, installing the body kits – a bumper, a spoiler, a diffuser, a side skirts and much more. Tuning has long gone beyond garage workshops, there were large companies, such as Renegade Design, which were producing a whole series of original tuning kits for the refinement of stock cars. In addition, there are tuning studios, some services are provided by the ordinary car service stations.
Born in the middle of the XX century, tuning turned from a simple styling into a real philosophical system, gaining followers around the world. After all, tuning is a kind of individuality manifesto, a means of self-expression and self-affirmation. The car is not a passive object, but a full-fledged participant, providing a vast field of activity for the creative process. The development of the design of tuning elements is carried out taking into account the design features and the nature of the four-wheeled friend.
For many car owners, car tuning has become a hobby or profession. Hundreds of thousands of enthusiasts from all over the world are creating communities, forums dedicated to car tuning. Numerous events are held annually, at which new versions of body kits are presented, trends for the modernization of salons are set, and tuned cars are exhibited. And although this type of activity appeared in Russia later, now it is rapidly gaining momentum. At the same time, it should be remembered that drastic changes require registration with the traffic police, so it is better to contact specialists who can make tuning legally and get permission to make changes.
One of the types of tuning is styling: giving the appearance of the car more of the individuality, its own style. This solution allows you to distinguish a vehicle from thousands of others, to attract the attention of the people around. The styling includes such types of work as:
body repainting in one or more colors, with a glossy or matte finish;
application of images and prints in the technique of airbrushing, in some cases branding with a film is acceptable;
glass tinting (except for the windshield);
installation of an external body kit – bumpers, spoilers, diffusers, air intakes, sills;
installation of LED illumination of false radiator, headlights, fenders, underbody, wheels;
fixing additional elements on car parts, for example, eyelashes on headlights, figures on the hood;
When installing a body kit, it is worth remembering that the improvement in aerodynamic properties becomes noticeable at a speed of 120 km / h. In such cases, the spoiler and diffuser really increase the downforce of the car, which favorably affects the "obedience" of the car, and the flows of redirected air cool the elements of the brake system and engine. Under other conditions, these are just decor details.
Car interior tuning
Most of the cars are produced with quite comfortable interior, which, if necessary, can be supplemented at the stage of sale. But it is still standardized and limited in capabilities. Therefore, interior tuning is very popular. First of all, we are talking about the constriction of seats, dashboard, steering wheel, ceiling, doors with various materials. The most commonly used are velour, artificial suede (Alcantara), carpets, as well as artificial and natural leather. It should be noted that automotive materials are characterized by increased thickness, strength, and have additional impregnations to protect them from moisture and dirt.
In addition, the tuning of the salon includes the installation of the steering wheel heating, seats, the installation of an additional ventilation system, the placement of decorative lighting or lighting elements, the purchase of massage pads and sets of rugs with increased comfort. Often, car owners decide to make drastic changes, completely changing the dashboard, seats, and the shape of other interior elements.
Tuning for racing, ringtool
In addition, there is a ringtool – tuning of a car that is preparing to take part in amateur races on public roads. The standard package is designated "RS" and includes an advanced braking system, an aerodynamic body kit, a welded roll cage and a sports suspension. Often, engines from sports cars are installed on cars or an existing one is upgraded. Of course, they also tune the appearance of the car, adding brutality and aggression with the help of airbrushing and installing additional decorative elements. There are professional tuning studios that specialize in ringtools.
Initially, the tuning was aimed at improving the elements of the car chassis. To increase the power of the car and its cross-country ability, to reduce fuel consumption, to increase safety, to extend the service life, these are the reasons why car owners made changes. Since then, lot’s happened, modern engines are significantly superior to the motors of the past, but the problem of tuning the chassis is still relevant.
Perhaps the most important part of tuning, because the brakes ensure the safety of the car (as well as the driver and passengers) not only on the road while driving, but also at rest, keeping the car from spontaneous movement. The work on the modernization of the brakes includes the installation of front and rear calipers with an increased number of pistons, the installation of high-temperature pads with an increased coefficient of friction. In addition, it makes sense to put larger discs to increase the efficiency of the braking system.
Tuning the engine is to modify the old or install a new. In the first case, it is supposed to boost the motor by increasing the engine speed or increasing the power of the torque arm. Therefore, they replace valves, connecting rods, pistons, lighten parts, and mount a compressor or turbocharger. The introduction of air filters to reduce drag and modernization of the exhaust system is also widespread.
As additional measures, "economizers" are used, the devices that increase the efficiency of the engine due to the complete combustion of fuel mixtures. Such devices include a water injection system in the internal combustion engine, ozonators for it, vortex mixers for the preparation of a fuel-air mixture of spark plugs with plasma igniters.
The transmission is responsible for transferring torque from the motor to the drive axle. To improve its performance, the gearbox is tuned, selecting gear ratios depending on the wheel dimensions, engine power and torque, and new gears. The latter allow you to speed up the acceleration of the car. Often, the factory gearbox is replaced with a disc or cam gearbox. In addition, the clutch is also upgraded: a lightweight flywheel or a metal-ceramic disc is installed. At the same time, the service life of the parts increases, the influence of temperature changes decreases, and the gear shift becomes clearer, without wheelspin.
The cushioning system serves as a connecting link between the wheels and the body. The softness of the car's course depends on it. To reduce shaking and vibration, more rigid springs, suspension struts or shock absorbers are installed. Replacing the suspension arms or anti-roll bars has proven itself well. As the ground clearance decreases, the car becomes more stable and obeys better when cornering and at high speeds. In some cases, a hydraulic or air suspension is installed, which is controlled from the passenger compartment and adjusts the amount of ground clearance. At the same time, you can also change the height of each wheel with the help of special pistons.
Separately, it is worth highlighting chip tuning, that is, the correction of control programs or the addition of third-party electronic components in order to improve sundries engine characteristics. The main tasks of chip tuning are to increase engine power, reduce fuel mixture consumption, calibrate control programs when installing gas cylinder equipment, as well as eliminating errors in factory programs and more fine-tuning for the characteristics of fuel, climate and modified chassis. Usually, for this, a sub-computer is connected to the standard engine directional control or adjustments are made to the controller program itself. In the latter case, quite hardware interfaces are used, which allow you to record programs through the diagnostic connector of the vehicle. To avoid annoying mistakes, it is recommended to trust chip tuning only to professionals in this field. They use specialized software with firmware and calibration databases from manufacturers. The results of chip tuning depend on the engine itself and the efficiency of the factory settings, usually we are talking about an increase in power by 8-12%, for supercharged engines this figure can exceed 30%.
Sound system tuning
Conditionally, the installation of the speaker system can be attributed to the tuning of the interior, as changes are made to the interior of the body. However, at the same time, the electronic system of the car is also touched, which makes it possible to make audio tuning a separate type. The minimum set is a stereo + two speakers in the front doors. For music lovers and connoisseurs, this is clearly not enough. Simply replacing the speakers with more powerful ones will not work, the head unit will not cope with the increased load. Therefore, the entire set is usually changed. Stereo, rear and front speakers are selected, but the most important thing is an amplifier. Additionally, you can put a subwoofer to be able to enjoy the detailed bass.
When installing the system, an important role is played by the rational placement of wiring, as well as the choice of a place for sound emitters. Sometimes a low-frequency multi-band amplifier is taken out to the luggage compartment, for which a phase-inverter housing is mounted there. With hard audiotuning, some speakers are installed on the roof, on a special metal frame. In some cases, car owners are asked to equip the car with color music.
The whole variety of tuning types boils down to giving the car individual features, increasing power, improving comfort and meeting the needs of the owner. Many companies, for example, Renegade, offer original kits of parts that are created for specific car makes, taking into account the characteristics of the body. This allows the body kit to complement the exterior, adding sporty chic or respectability. When developing tuning projects, the main thing to remember is that style assumes a measure, without flashy details, vulgar colors and grotesque designs.
Autotuning is an expensive pleasure, but many owners are willing to spend money to make their favorite car look decent. Some companies meet users halfway by offering configurators that help you choose a set or individual tuning parts, and calculators for calculating the cost. The issue of payment with the possibility of buying on credit or by instalments is being successfully resolved. A flexible approach to customers allows you to serve both individuals and large companies with a corporate fleet. Contacting specialized firms guarantees the quality of materials and installation. Do not skimp on safety, because a hastily installed bumper can fly off while driving and cause an accident, and carelessly laid electrical wiring can cause a fire.